Junk food linked to gut inflammation

Eating a Western diet impairs the immune system in the gut in ways that could increase risk of infection and inflammatory bowel disease, according to a study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Cleveland Clinic.

The study, in mice and people, showed that a diet high in sugar and fat causes damage to Paneth cells, immune cells in the gut that help keep inflammation in check. When Paneth cells aren’t functioning properly, the gut immune system is excessively prone to inflammation, putting people at risk of inflammatory bowel disease and undermining effective control of disease-causing microbes. The findings, published in Cell Host & Microbe, open up new approaches to regulating gut immunity by restoring normal Paneth cell function.

A tiny, 3D model of the intestines formed from anti-inflammatory cells known as Paneth cells (green and red) and other intestinal cells (blue) is seen in the image above. Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Cleveland Clinic used such models, called organoids, to understand why a Western-style diet rich in fat and sugar damages Paneth cells and disrupts the gut immune system

Inflammatory bowel disease has historically been a problem primarily in Western countries such as the U.S., but it’s becoming more common globally as more and more people adopt Western lifestyles,” said lead author Ta-Chiang Liu, MD, PhD, an associate professor of pathology & immunology at Washington University. “Our research showed that long-term consumption of a Western-style diet high in fat and sugar impairs the function of immune cells in the gut in ways that could promote inflammatory bowel disease or increase the risk of intestinal infections.”

Paneth cell impairment is a key feature of inflammatory bowel disease. For example, people with Crohn’s disease, a kind of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia and fatigue, often have Paneth cells that have stopped working.

Source: https://medicine.wustl.edu/

Blood Test For Alzheimer’s Detects Signs 20 years Before Falter

A new blood test detected Alzheimer’s disease as accurately as expensive brain scans or spinal taps, raising the possibility for a new, inexpensive option to diagnose the most common form of dementia, researchers said. Researchers at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference presented the results of multiple studies of whether a blood test could distinguish Alzheimer’s disease from other forms of dementia.

In one study published in JAMA, researchers said the blood test could could identify Alzheimer’s disease and even detected signs of disease 20 years before cognitive problems were expected in a group of people who carry a rare genetic mutation. A blood test to detect Alzheimer’s disease early could be more precise than memory and thinking tests now used to diagnose the disease. Invasive and expensive brain scans and spinal taps that measure spinal fluid are used, but insurance does not always cover those tests. Researchers reported the blood test measuring the protein tau accurately distinguished Alzheimer’s from other forms of dementia in 89% to 98% of cases.

It is a promising blood test that seems to be highly accurate and seems to detect (Alzheimer’s) relatively early,” said Dr. Eric Reiman, a researcher in one of the studies and executive director of Banner Alzheimer’s Institute in Phoenix

But experts warned it could take a few years to validate a blood test as a reliable option for both doctors and researchers. And would patients want to know they are destined to develop memory and thinking problems if there are no reliable medications to slow the deadly disease?

Randall J. Bateman, a Washington University neurology professor and Alzheimer’s researcher, said blood tests could be useful both for patients and doctors as well scientists studying new drugs to slow the mind-robbing disease. Doctors might use the test to accurately diagnose Alzheimer’s earlier and begin treatments with existing Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs that ease symptoms, if not mental decline. But perhaps the bigger payoff would come for accelerating research for new drugs that seek to slow or halt a disease that afflicts 5.8 million older Americans. Drug companies for decades have developed therapies targeting amyloid proteins on the theory it is responsible for scuttling memory and thinking in Alzheimer’s patients. Some recent studies have sought to administer drugs targeting these proteins before memory and thinking problems emerge.

Source: https://jamanetwork.com/ 
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