Augmented Reality (AR) Revolutionizes Surgery

Dr Stephen Quinn, a gynaecologist at hospitals in the NHS Trust Imperial College, appears on TV show to help a patient, Hilda, with a condition causing her swollen abdomen. After taking careful scans of Hilda’s body, the team are able to show her the growths, called fibroids, that are behind her pain.

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I’ve spent a lot of my career looking at MRI scans of pelvises, and having these images is extremely helpful in clinic,” said Quinn. “But using augmented reality just took that to a whole different level. It was fantastic being able to to fully visualise exactly what was going on in the pelvis ahead of the surgery to remove the fibroids.”

Unfortunately, the technology is a way off being available on the NHS, but Quinn said AR’s use could be commonplace within the next decade.

For the show, radiologists at Imperial hospitals provided artists with in-depth scans of each patient. Dr Dimitri Amiras, a musculoskeletal consultant radiologist at Imperial, also worked on the experiment.

First, patients would undergo routine scans. “In order to define what the organ is and where the pathology is, that’s all done by radiologists. We are the ones to identify it and look at the imaging techniques work out what is good tissue, what’s bad tissue,” said Amiras. “Then, once we’ve got those images with relevant bits identified, digital artists may draw around them or even use artificial intelligence to make all the pretty pictures and the shiny stuff.”

Once finished, the patients and doctors would wear an AR device to ‘see’ the body part in front of them. Each was 3D, and could be zoomed in or out, rotated, and compared to the same areas on a healthy individual.

Source: https://www.sciencefocus.com/

Artificial Intelligence Outperforms Humans In Prediction Of Breast Cancer

An artificial intelligence (AI) system can reduce false positives and false negatives in prediction of breast cancer and outperforms human readers, according to a study published online Jan. 1 in Nature.

Scott Mayer McKinney, from Google Health in Palo Alto, California, and colleagues examined the performance of an AI system for breast cancer prediction in a clinical setting. Data were curated from a large representative dataset from the United Kingdom and a large enriched dataset from the United States.

The researchers observed an absolute reduction of 5.7 and 1.2 percent in false positives in the U.S. and U.K. datasets, respectively, and 9.4 and 2.7 percent, respectively, in false negatives. The system was also able to generalize from the United Kingdom to the United States. The AI system outperformed six human readers in an independent study involving radiologists; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was greater for the AI system than the average radiologist (absolute margin, 11.5 percent). The AI system maintained noninferior performance in a simulation in which the AI system participated in the double-reading process that is used in the United Kingdom and reduced the workload of the second reader by 88 percent.

“These analyses highlight the potential of this technology to deliver screening results in a sustainable manner despite workforce shortages in countries such as the United Kingdom,” the authors write.

Several authors disclosed financial ties to technology companies, including Google, which funded the study.

Source: https://www.nature.com/
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