Magnetic Nanoparticles Fry Cancerous Cells

Chemotherapy could be up to 34 per cent more effective thanks to a new technique which combines the treatment with magnetic particles that fry cancerous cells. Researchers at University College London (UCL) found the combination of heat and chemo drugs makes the process more effective. Tiny magnetic nanoparticles attach themselves to the cancerous cells of a tumour and also carry the chemotherapy drug.

When doctors apply a harmless magnetic field to the area from outside the body it activates the nanoparticles’ magnetic properties and causes them to warm up, heating the trapped cancerous cells. Research reveals this damages the tumour and makes it more vulnerable to pre-existing drugs.

The research has so far only been tested in a lab, but researchers say the early findings are significant. Human breast cancer cells, glioblastoma (brain cancer) cells, and mouse prostate cancer cells were all treated, in a test tube, with this new technique. Doxorubicin — a commonly used chemo drug — was applied to the magnetic nanoparticlesHeat and doxorubicin together killed 98 per cent of brain cancer cells after 48 hours. The drug only killed 73 per cent of cells when applied without heat. For the breast cancer cells, 89 per cent of the cancer was eliminated by the combination, and this drops to just 77 per cent for the drug alone.

Our study shows the enormous potential of combining chemotherapy with heat treatment delivered via magnetic nanoparticles,” said Senior author Professor Nguyen T. K. Thanh. ‘While this combination of therapy is already approved for the treatment of fast-growing glioblastomas, our results suggest it has potential to be used more widely as a broad anti-cancer therapy. ‘This therapy also has potential to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy, by ensuring it is more highly targeted on cancer cells rather than healthy issue. This needs to be explored in further pre-clinical tests.’

The results have been published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry B,

Source: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/

How To Stimulate Broken Bone Cells To Heal Much More Quickly

It was just a couple of months ago that we heard about an implantable material that electrically stimulates bone cells, causing them to reproduce. Now, scientists have created a similar substance that utilizes magnetism. There are already a number of experimental materials that have a three-dimensional scaffolding-like microstructure, which simulates the structure of natural bone. After a piece of such a material has been implanted at a bone wound site, cells from the body’s adjacent bone tissue gradually migrate into it. Those cells reproduce over time, while the scaffolding simultaneously dissolves. Eventually, all that’s left is newly-grown bone, in the shape and location of the implant.

One of the challenges of the technology involves getting the bone cells to migrate and reproduce quickly. Although growth-boosting chemicals are often added to the material, scientists at the University of Connecticut took another approach with a scaffolding that they announced this June – it generates a weak electrical field in response to externally applied ultrasound pulses, and that field in turn prompts the bone cells to reproduce.

More recently, though, a team at Spain’s University of the Basque Country developed a material that instead incorporates magnetic nanoparticles. These are dispersed within a 3D matrix of a biocompatible silk-derived protein known as fibroin.

When we apply a magnetic field, we bring about a response by these nanoparticles, which vibrate and thus deform the structure, they stretch it and transmit the mechanical stress to the cells,” says the lead scientist, Dr. José Luis Vilas-Vilela. In in vitro lab tests, that stress stimulated bone cells to reproduce much more quickly than would have otherwise been the case. In fact, the technology could conceivably be used to regrow more than just bone.

We are developing various types of materials, stimuli and processes so that we can have the means to achieve the regeneration of different tissue,” says Vilas-Vilela. “In addition, the idea would be to use the stem cells of the patients themselves and be capable of differentiating them towards the type of cell we want to form the tissue with, be it bone, muscle, heart or whatever might be needed.”

The research – which also involved scientists from Portugal’s University of Minho and biotech firm BCMaterials – is described in a paper that was recently published in the journal Materialia.

Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/
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Swarms Of NanoRobots Quickly Clean-up Radioactive Waste

According to some experts, nuclear power holds great promise for meeting the world’s growing energy demands without generating greenhouse gases. But scientists need to find a way to remove radioactive isotopes, both from wastewater generated by nuclear power plants and from the environment in case of a spill. Now, a team of researchers from  the University of Chemistry and Technology and the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry in Prague, Czech Republic,  reporting in ACS Nano have developed tiny, self-propelled robots that remove radioactive uranium from simulated wastewater.

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The accidental release of radioactive waste, such as what occurred in the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear plant disasters, poses large threats to the environment, humans, and wildlife. Scientists have developed materials to capture, separate, remove and recover radioactive uranium from water, but the materials have limitations. One of the most promising recent approaches is the use of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) — compounds that can trap specific substances, including radioactive uranium, within their porous structures. Martin Pumera and colleagues wanted to add a micromotor to a rod-shaped MOF called ZIF-8 to see if it could quickly clean up radioactive waste.

To make their self-propelled microrobots, the researchers designed ZIF-8 rods with diameters about 1/15 that of a human hair. The researchers added iron atoms and iron oxide nanoparticles to stabilize the structures and make them magnetic, respectively. Catalytic platinum nanoparticles placed at one end of each rod converted hydrogen peroxidefuel” in the water into oxygen bubbles, which propelled the microrobots at a speed of about 60 times their own length per second. In simulated radioactive wastewater, the microrobots removed 96% of the uranium in an hour. The team collected the uranium-loaded rods with a magnet and stripped off the uranium, allowing the tiny robots to be recycled. The self-propelled microrobots could someday help in the management and remediation of radioactive waste, the researchers say.

Source: https://pubs.acs.org/
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