Drug that increases human lifespan to 200 years is in the works

The idea of living for hundreds of years was once thought to be the pipe dream of billionaires and tech moguls. But scientists at the forefront of anti-ageing research believe they are on the cusp of developing a pill that could lead to people living to the age of 200 and beyond. Medical advances in the last century have led to humans in wealthy nations living into their 80s, almost double the average life expectancy at the turn of the 20th century.

Improved nutrition, clean water, better sanitation and huge leaps in medicine have been key in prolonging human life. The oldest known person — the Frenchwoman Jeanne Calment, who sold canvases to Vincent Van Gogh when she was a girl in the late 1800s — lived to the age of 122, dying in 1997.  There is some debate about whether humans can naturally live much beyond that age, but it is hoped that science will take human lifespans beyond what is currently thought possible.

Dr Andrew Steele, a British computational biologist and author of a new book on longevity, said there is no biological reason humans can’t reach the age of 200. He believes the big breakthrough will come in the form of drugs that removezombie cells‘ in the body, which are thought to be one of the main culprits of tissue and organ decay as we age. Pills that flush these cells out of the body are already in human trials in and could be on the market in as little as 10 years, according to Dr Steele, who believes someone reading this could make it to 150 with the help of the drugs.

Another field in particular that piques the interest of anti-ageing scientists is the study of DNA of reptiles and other cold-blooded animalsMichigan State University experts have begun studying dozens different types of long-living reptiles and amphibians — including crocodiles, salamanders and turtles that can live as long as 120 years. The team hope they will uncover ‘traits‘ that can also be targeted in humans.

Some experts think that eradicating the big killerscancer, dementia and heart disease — could be the true key to longevity.

 ‘I don’t think there is any kind of absolute cap on how long we can live. ‘Studies come out every few years that propose some kind of fundamental limit on human lifespan, but they’re always missing one crucial piece: we’ve never tried treating the ageing process before. ‘I can’t see physical or biological reason why people couldn’t live to 200 — the challenge is whether we’ve can develop the biomedical science to make it possible.’ says Dr Steele, the author of Ageless: The New Science of Getting Older Without Getting Old.

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New Drug Could Protect Against Aging

Senolytics are an emerging class of drugs designed to target zombie-like cells that have stopped dividing and build up in the body as we age, and the past few years have seen some exciting discoveries that demonstrate their potential. Adding another to the list are Mayo Clinic researchers, who have shown that these drugs can protect against aging and its related diseases, by acting on a protein long associated with longevity. The zombie-like cells involved in this research are known as senescent cells, and their accumulation during aging is associated with a range of diseases. Recent studies have shown that using senolytics to clear them out could serve as new and effective treatments for dementia and diabetes, and also improve health and lifespan more broadly.

The Mayo Clinic team were exploring how senolytics can influence levels of a protein called a-klotho, known to help protect older people from the effects of aging. The role of this protein in the aging process is well established and has placed it at the center of much research in this space, with studies demonstrating how it could help reverse osteoarthritis and regenerate old musclesLevels of a-klotho are also known to decrease with age, and studies have shown these declines shorten the lifespan of mice. Conversely, inserting genes that encode for the protein has been shown to increase the lifespan of mice by 30 percent. Boosting its levels in humans has been problematic, however, as its larger size would require it to be administered intravenously. But now the Mayo Clinic scientists believe they have found another route, as senolytic drugs can be administered orally.

They first showed that senescent cells reduce levels of a-klotho in human cells. They then demonstrated that using a combination of senolytic drugs on three different types of mice could counter this and increase levels of a-klotho. This effect was then observed in follow-up experiments on patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, a lung disease that can cause breathing difficulty, frailty and death.

“We show that there is an avenue for an orally active, small-molecule approach to increase this beneficial protein and also to amplify the action of senolytic drugs,” says James Kirkland, M.D., Ph.D., a Mayo Clinic internist and senior author of the study.

Source: https://www.thelancet.com/

The Fountain of Youth

A step toward discovering the fountain of youth could involve protecting against the inevitable accumulation of “senescentcells associated with aging and age-related diseases. Now, researchers from Japan have identified the MondoA protein as key to protecting against the accumulation of senescent cells.

In a study published this month in Cell Reports, researchers led by Osaka University have shown that MondoA delays cellular senescence, and therefore promotes longevity, by activating . Autophagy is a process whereby cells undergo controlled breakdown and recycling of their components, which is important for maintaining stable conditions in the cellular environment and for enabling adaptation to stress. Activation of autophagy by MondoA partly involves suppressing a protein called Rubicon, which is a negative regulator of autophagy. Rubicon can increase with aging in various tissues and model organisms, which can cause the decline in autophagy seen with aging.

Furthermore, MondoA is also essential to maintaining stable conditions of parts of the cell called mitochondria, which are responsible for energy production. MondoA does this by regulating another molecule, Prdx3, which is involved in mitochondrial turnover. Mitochondria are constantly fusing and dividing, which is important for maintaining their health. Prdx3 is part of the process by which autophagy occurs in mitochondria, preventing senescence. The research team led by Osaka University concluded that MondoA plays a key role in the regulation of Prdx3 and therefore in maintaining mitochondrial stability.

Particularly dense accumulation of senescent cells has been observed in the kidney. The researchers therefore looked at ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) in mice.

Mice with ischemic AKI and reduced levels of MondoA showed increased senescence,” explains lead author Hitomi Yamamoto-Imoto. “We also found that decreased MondoA in the nucleus correlated with human aging and ischemic AKI. MondoA therefore counteracts cellular  in aging and ischemic AKI in both mice and humans.”

Drugs that eliminate senescent cells, called senolytics, are currently being considered as treatment for age-associated diseases. However, senescent  play important roles, and their complete removal may have considerable side effects. “Our work shows that the transcriptional activation of MondoA can protect against , kidney injury associated with aging, and organismal aging,” explains senior author Tamotsu Yoshimori. “Activation of MondoA and therefore autophagy could be a potentially safe therapeutic strategy.” This work could well open new and safer avenues for the treatment of aging and age-related diseases.

Source: https://phys.org/

Blood iron levels could be key to slowing ageing

Genes linked to ageing that could help explain why some people age at different rates to others have been identified by scientists. The international study using genetic data from more than a million people suggests that maintaining healthy levels of iron in the blood could be a key to ageing better and living longerThe findings could accelerate the development of drugs to reduce age-related diseases, extend healthy years of life and increase the chances of living to old age free of disease, the researchers say.

Scientists from the University of Edinburgh and the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Germany focused on three measures linked to biological ageinglifespan, years of life lived free of disease (healthspan), and being extremely long–lived (longevity). Biological ageing – the rate at which our bodies decline over timevaries between people and drives the world’s most fatal diseases, including heart disease, dementia and cancers.

The researchers pooled information from three public datasets to enable an analysis in unprecedented detail. The combined dataset was equivalent to studying 1.75 million lifespans or more than 60,000 extremely long-lived people. The team pinpointed ten regions of the genome linked to long lifespan, healthspan and longevity. They also found that gene sets linked to iron were overrepresented in their analysis of all three measures of ageing.

Source: https://www.thebrighterside.news/

How To Fine-Tune Bacterial Metabolism To Boost Longevity

Studies have shown that gut microbes can influence several aspects of the host’s life, including aging. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the human gut environment, elucidating how a specific microbial species contributes to longevity has been challenging.

To explore the influence of bacterial products on the aging process, scientists at Baylor College of Medicine and Rice University developed a method that uses light to directly control gene expression and metabolite production from bacteria residing in the gut of the laboratory worm Caenorhabditis elegans.

The team reports (“Optogenetic control of gut bacterial metabolism to promote longevity”) in eLife that green-light-induced production of colanic acid by resident Escherichia coli bacteria protected gut cells against stress-induced cellular damage and extended the worm’s lifespan. The researchers indicate that this method can be applied to study other bacteria and propose that it also might provide in the future a new way to fine-tune bacterial metabolism in the host gut to deliver health benefits with minimal side effects.

Illustration of bacteria in the intestine.

Gut microbial metabolism is associated with host longevity. However, because it requires direct manipulation of microbial metabolism in situ, establishing a causal link between these two processes remains challenging. We demonstrate an optogenetic method to control gene expression and metabolite production from bacteria residing in the host gut. We genetically engineer an E. coli strain that secretes colanic acid (CA) under the quantitative control of light,” the investigators wrote.

Using this optogenetically-controlled strain to induce CA production directly in the C. elegans gut, we reveal the local effect of CA in protecting intestinal mitochondria from stress-induced hyper-fragmentation. We also demonstrate that the lifespan-extending effect of this strain is positively correlated with the intensity of green light, indicating a dose-dependent CA benefit on the host.

“Thus, optogenetics can be used to achieve quantitative and temporal control of [the microbiome] metabolism in order to reveal its local and systemic effects on host health and aging. “We used optogenetics, a method that combines light and genetically engineered light-sensitive proteins to regulate molecular events in a targeted manner in living cells or organisms,” said co-corresponding author Meng Wang, PhD, professor of molecular and human genetics at the Huffington Center on Aging at Baylor.

Source: https://www.genengnews.com/

Blood Iron Levels Are Key To Slowing Ageing

Genes that could help explain why some people age at different rates to others have been identified by scientists. The international study using genetic data from more than a million people suggests that maintaining healthy levels of iron in the blood could be a key to ageing better and living longer. The findings could accelerate the development of drugs to reduce age-related diseases, extend healthy years of life and increase the chances of living to old age free of disease, the researchers say.

Scientists from the University of Edinburgh and the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing in Germany focused on three measures linked to biological ageinglifespan, years of life lived free of disease (healthspan), and being extremely long–lived (longevity). Biological ageing – the rate at which our bodies decline over time – varies between people and drives the world’s most fatal diseases, including heart disease, dementia and cancers. The researchers pooled information from three public datasets to enable an analysis in unprecedented detail. The combined dataset was equivalent to studying 1.75 million lifespans or more than 60,000 extremely long-lived people. The team pinpointed ten regions of the genome linked to long lifespan, healthspan and longevity. They also found that gene sets linked to iron were overrepresented in their analysis of all three measures of ageing. The researchers confirmed this using a statistical method – known as Mendelian randomisation – that suggested that genes involved in metabolising iron in the blood are partly responsible for a healthy long life.

Blood iron is affected by diet and abnormally high or low levels are linked to age-related conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, liver disease and a decline in the body’s ability to fight infection in older age. The researchers say that designing a drug that could mimic the influence of genetic variation on iron metabolism could be a future step to overcome some of the effects of ageing, but caution that more work is required.

Anonymised datasets linking genetic variation to healthspan, lifespan, and longevity were downloaded from the publicly available Zenodo, Edinburgh DataShare and Longevity Genomics servers.

We are very excited by these findings as they strongly suggest that high levels of iron in the blood reduces our healthy years of life, and keeping these levels in check could prevent age-related damage. We speculate that our findings on iron metabolism might also start to explain why very high levels of iron-rich red meat in the diet has been linked to age-related conditions such as heart disease”, said Dr Paul Timmers from the Usher Institute.

The study was funded by the Medical Research Council and is published in the journal Nature Communications.

Source: https://www.ed.ac.uk/