Destroying Cancer Cells by Enhancing Radiation Therapy

A new study by researchers at Kyoto University’s Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) and collaborators in Japan and the United States demonstrates that enhancing radiation therapy using novel iodine nanoparticles can destroy cancer cells.

When X-rays are irradiated onto tumor tissue containing iodine-carrying nanoparticles, the iodine releases electrons that break DNA and kill the cancer cells

X-ray irradiation of high Z elements causes photoelectric effects that include the release of Auger electrons that can induce localized DNA breaks,” wrote the researchers. “We have previously established a tumor spheroid-based assay that used gadolinium containing mesoporous silica nanoparticles and synchrotron-generated monochromatic X-rays. In this work, we focused on iodine and synthesized iodine-containing porous organosilica (IPO) nanoparticles.”

Exposing a metal to light leads to the release of electrons, a phenomenon called the photoelectric effect. An explanation of this phenomenon by Albert Einstein in 1905 heralded the birth of quantum physics,” said iCeMS molecular biologist Fuyuhiko Tamanoi, PhD, who led the study. “Our research provides evidence that suggests it is possible to reproduce this effect inside cancer cells.

The researchers sought to overcome the challenge of effective radiation therapy at the center of tumors where oxygen levels are low due to the lack of blood vessels penetrating deeply into the tissue.

The findings were published in the journal Scientific Reports .