‘Drug Factory’ Implants Could Eliminate Specific Lung Cancer

Rice University and Baylor College of Medicine researchers have shown they can seradicate advanced-stage mesothelioma tumor in mice in just a few days with a treatment combining Rice’s cytokinedrug factoryimplants and a checkpoint inhibitor drug.

The researchers administered the drug-producing beads, which are no larger than the head of a pin, next to tumors where they could produce continuous, high doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2), a natural compound that activates white blood cells to fight cancer. The study, published online today in Clinical Cancer Research, is the latest in a string of successes for the drug-factory technology invented in the lab of Rice bioengineer Omid Veiseh, including Food and Drug Administration (FDAapproval to begin clinical trials of the technology this fall in ovarian cancer patients.

From the beginning, our objective was to develop a platform therapy that can be used for multiple different types of immune system disorders or different types of cancers,” said Rice graduate student Amanda Nash, who spent several years developing the implant technology with study co-lead author Samira Aghlara-Fotovat, a fellow student in Veiseh’s lab.

The cytokine factories consist of alginate beads loaded with tens of thousands of cells that are genetically engineered to produce natural IL-2, one of two cytokines the FDA has approved for treatment of cancer. The factories are just 1.5 millimeters wide and can be implanted with minimally invasive surgery to deliver high doses of IL-2 directly to tumors. In the mesothelioma study, the beads were placed beside tumors and inside the thin layer of tissue known as the pleura, which covers the lungs and lines the interior wall of the chest.

I take care of patients who have malignant pleural mesothelioma,” said Dr. Bryan Burt, professor and chief of Baylor’s Division of Thoracic Surgery in the Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery. “This is a very aggressive malignancy of the lining of the lungs. And it’s very hard to treat completely by surgical resection. In other words, there is often residual disease that is left behind. The treatment of this residual disease with local immunotherapy — the local delivery of relatively high doses of immunotherapy to that pleural space — is a very attractive way to treat this disease.”

Veiseh said the mesothelioma study began when Burt and Baylor surgeon and associate professor Dr. Ravi Ghanta heard about the early results of ovarian cancer animal tests Veiseh’s team was conducting with collaborators at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. In March, Veiseh and MD Anderson collaborators published a study showing IL-2-producing beads could eradicate advanced-stage ovarian and colorectal tumors in mice in less than a week.

They were really impressed by the preclinical data we had in ovarian cancer,” Veiseh said of Burt and Ghanta. “And they asked the question, ‘Could we actually leverage the same system for mesothelioma?’

Source: https://blogs.bcm.edu/

AI-designed Antibody Enters Clinical Trials

The Israeli company Biolojic Design will conduct a trial for cancer patients in Australia with a new type of drugAulos Biosciences is now recruiting cancer patients to try it’s world’s first antibody drug designed by a computer. The computationally designed antibody, known as AU-007, was planned by the artificial intelligence platform of Israeli biotech company Biolojic Design from Rehovot, in a way that would target a protein in the human body known as interleukin-2 (IL-2). The goal is for the IL-2 pathway to activate the body’s immune system and attack the tumors.

The clinical trial will be conducted on patients with final stage solid tumors and will last about a year – but the company hopes to present interim results during 2022. The trial has raised great hopes because if it is successful, it will pave the way for the development of a new type of drug using computational biology and “big data.” Aulos presented pre-clinical data from a study on 19 mice – and they all responded positively to the treatment. In the 17-day trial period of the study, the antibody led to the complete elimination of the tumors in 10 of the mice – and to a significant delay in the development of the tumors in the other nine mice.

Aulos was founded in Boston as a spin-off of Biolojic and venture capital firm Apple Tree Partners, which invested $40 million in the company to advance the antibody project and prove its clinical feasibility. Drugs based on antibodies are considered to be one of the greatest hopes for anti-cancer solutions. Among the best-known in the field are Keytruda, mostly used to treat melanomas and lung cancer; and Herceptin for breast cancer. But the antibodies given today to cancer patients are created by a method that also has disadvantages – most are produced by the immune system in mice, and then are replicated to enable mass production.

Source: https://www.haaretz.com/