COVID-19: Single vaccine jab linked to 85% and 94% drop in risk of coronavirus hospital admissions

The COVID-19  vaccines being used in the UK could reduce a person’s risk of being admitted to hospital by as much as 94% four weeks after the first dose, new data suggests. Experts examined coronavirus hospital admissions in Scotland among people who have had their first jab and compared them to those who had not yet received a vaccine.

Four weeks after receiving the initial dose, the Oxford/Astrazeneca  jab appeared to reduce a person’s risk of hospital admission by 94%. Those who received the Pfizer jab had a reduction in risk of 85% between 28 and 34 days after the first dose. Data for the two jabs combined showed that among people over the age of 80 – who are at high risk of severe disease – the reduction in risk of hospital admission was 81% four weeks after the first dose.

https://news.sky.com/

90% of patients contaminated by COVID-19 Have Lost Their Sense Of Smell

An European study led by a French research team at Hopital Foch in Paris (Suresnes) has concluded that nearly 90% of  contaminated patients by coronavirus have lost their sense of smell.

Patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were recruited from 12 European hospitals. The following epidemiological and clinical outcomes have been studied: age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, general and otolaryngological symptoms. Patients completed olfactory and gustatory questionnaires based on the smell and taste component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and the short version of the Questionnaire of Olfactory Disorders-Negative Statements (sQOD-NS).

A total of 417 mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients completed the study (263 females). The most prevalent general symptoms consisted of cough, myalgia and loss of appetite. Face pain and nasal obstruction were the most specific otolaryngological symptoms85.6% and 88.0% of patients reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, respectively.

There was a significant association between both disorders (p<0.001). Olfactory dysfunction (OD) appeared before the other symptoms in 11.8% of cases. The sQO-NS scores were significantly lower in patients with presumed anosmia compared with normosmic or presumed hyposmic individuals (p=0.001). Among the 18.2% of patients without nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea, 79.7% had olfactory dysfunction. The early olfactory recovery rate was 44.0%. Females were significantly more affected by olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions than males (p=0.001).
The researchers stated that
olfactory and gustatory disorders are prevalent symptoms in European COVID-19 patients, who may not have nasal symptoms. The sudden olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions need to be recognized by the international scientific community as important symptoms of the COVID-19 infection.

Source: https://www.entnet.org/

Self-Cleaning Surface Repels The Deadliest SuperBugs

Researchers at McMaster (Canada) have solved a vexing problem by engineering surface coatings that can repel everything, such as bacteria, viruses and living cells, but can be modified to permit beneficial exceptionsThe discovery holds significant promise for medical and other applications, making it possible for implants such as vascular grafts, replacement heart valves and artificial joints to bond to the body without risk of infection or blood clotting. The new nanotechnology has the potential to greatly reduce false positives and negatives in medical tests by eliminating interference from non-target elements in blood and urine.

The research adds significant utility to completely repellent surfaces that have existed since 2011. Those surface coatings are useful for waterproofing phones and windshields, and repelling bacteria from food-preparation areas, for example, but have offered limited utility in medical applications where specific beneficial binding is required

 

It was a huge achievement to have completely repellent surfaces, but to maximize the benefits of such surfaces, we needed to create a selective door that would allow beneficial elements to bond with those surfaces,” explains Tohid Didar of McMaster’s Department of Mechanical Engineering and School of Biomedical Engineering, the senior author of a paper that appears today in the journal ACS Nano.

In the case of a synthetic heart valve, for example, a repellent coating can prevent blood cells from sticking and forming clots, making it much safer.

A coating that repels blood cells could potentially eliminate the need for medicines such as warfarin that are used after implants to cut the risk of clots,” says co-author , a McMaster PhD student in Biomedical Engineering. Still, she explains, a completely repellent coating also prevents the body from integrating the new valve into the tissue of the heart itself.

By designing the surface to permit adhesion only with heart tissue cells, the researchers are making it possible for the body to integrate the new valve naturally, avoiding the complications of rejection. The same would be true for other implants, such as artificial joints and stents used to open blood vessels.

If you want a device to perform better and not be rejected by the body, this is what you need to do,” says co-author Maryam Badv, also a McMaster PhD student in Biomedical Engineering. “It is a huge problem in medicine.”

Source: https://brighterworld.mcmaster.ca/

How To Kill Deadly Hospital Bacteria

Scientists at Aston University (UK) have discovered a technique similar to medieval stained glass-making that can completely eradicate the deadliest hospital infections within hours.

Using a so-called bioactive phosphate glass containing small amounts of the metallic element cobalt, the researchers were able to achieve a “complete kill” of the deadly bacterial infections E.coli and Candida albicans (a fungal infection associated with surgery), as well as a near-complete kill of Staphylococcus aureus (the drug-resistant form of which is MRSA).

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Lead researcher, Dr Richard Martin of Aston University in Birmingham, said the findings had significant implications, offering the possibility of cheap, antimicrobial implants and coatings to combat the most common sources of infections associated with medical care. Avoiding the need for antibiotics, it is also thought the bioactive glass could be effective against drug-resistantsuperbugs’, helping to tackle the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR).

According to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), over four million people in Europe get a healthcare-associated infection (HAI) every year, and around 37,000 die as a direct result of the infection. In its most recent survey of hospital patients, Public Health England found that 6.4% had a healthcare-associated infection.

In the study, published in the journal ACS Biomaterials, the researchers used a centuries-old technique to make glass laced with trace amounts of cobalt in a furnace heated to over 1,000°C, before rapid cooling to prevent crystallisation. These were then ground down into a fine powder and put into contact with bacteria in petri dishes. The glasses contained varying concentrations of cobalt, providing a controlled release of antimicrobial ions as they dissolved. At the highest concentration, the glass completely eradicated E.coli within just six hours, with a “complete kill” also observed for C.albicans within 24 hours. S.aureus levels were reduced by 99% after 24 hours.

Source: https://www2.aston.ac.uk/

Short Patients Are More Likely To Die In Intensive Care

If you end up in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital or clinic there’s a number of things that can affect your eventual outcome. How healthy you are, your age, and the conditions that you’re suffering from are all obvious factors, but a new study suggests that your height might actually play a role in whether you’re able to pull through or not.

New research published in Intensive Care Medicine suggests that taller patients tend to survive at a higher rate than shorter individuals. The study reaches a rather bold conclusion in that short stature may actually be a risk factor if you end up in the ICU.

The cohort study looked at over 400,000 cases from the UK in total, with 233,308 men and 184,070 women who passed through a hospital intensive care unit. After accounting for anything that could skew the data one way or another, the team crunched the numbers and discovered that shorter people die more often in the ICU by a significant margin.

Hospital mortality decreased with increasing height; predicted mortality decreased from 24.1 to 17.1% for women and from 29.2 to 21.0% for men across the range of heights,” the study explains. Those are stunning numbers, but why would height affect health outcomes in such a drastic way?

We can’t say for sure why this is happening,” Dr. Hannah Wunsh, co-author of the study, said in a statement. “It’s speculative that all the things we do to people might in some way be harmful to patients who are smaller.”

Source: https://bgr.com/2018/