How To Catch Aggressive Prostate Cancer Early
Two newly published studies are presenting novel diagnostic techniques to help catch the most aggressive forms of prostate cancer at an early stage. A University of East Anglia study presents an innovative way to measure gene expression in tumor samples and predict disease severity, while an Australian study details a new kind of imaging technique promising to detect metastasized prostate cancer with greater accuracy than ever before.
Two new techniques are designed to detect aggressive forms of prostate cancer and catch it when it metastasizes
“Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK,” explains Colin Cooper, lead researcher on a new study from the University of East Anglia. “It usually develops slowly and the majority of cancers will not require treatment in a man’s lifetime. However, doctors struggle to predict which tumors will become aggressive, making it hard to decide on treatment for many men.”
In order to develop a way for doctors to better identify the most aggressive tumors the researchers examined different gene expression patterns in nearly 2,000 prostate tumor samples. Applying a mathematical model called Latent Process Decomposition, the study homed in on a particular pattern of gene expression associated with the most aggressive clinical cases.
The pattern relates to a subtype of cells the team has labeled DESNT, and suggest the more tumor cells in a sample that are of that DESNT subtype, the faster a patient will progress through the disease. The hope is that this can act as a biomarker to stratify prostate cancer patients, identifying those needing more urgent invasive treatments.
“If you have a tumor that is majority DESNT you are more likely to get metastatic disease, in other words it is more likely to spread to other parts of your body,” says Daniel Brewer, co-lead researcher on the project. “This is a much better indication of aggressive disease.”
Identifying when prostate cancer has metastasized is obviously of vital importance in guiding treatment. A team of Australian researchers just published the results of a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of a new imaging technique developed to provide detailed data on the spread of the disease.
“Around one in three prostate cancer patients will experience a disease relapse after surgery or radiotherapy,” says Declan Murphy, senior author on the new imaging study. “This is partly because current medical imaging techniques often fail to detect when the cancer has spread, which means some men are not given the additional treatments they need.”