Tag Archives: pill

Exercise Is The Most Powerful Technique To Keep Our Brain Sharp

Unfortunately, we can’t go hard forever. But in the future, that might not be a problem: New research has revealed how to harness the cognitive benefits of a workout — without the actual workout. Scientists think this help slow aging in the brain. A study published Thursday in Science suggests the benefits of exercise run in the blood and may be able to be transferred from one swoll organism to another, less-swoll one.

Researchers report that unexercised, aged mice who received blood plasma donations from exercised mice improved their performance on spatial memory tests and showed fewer markers of inflammation related to aging. The authors suggest that these improvements occurred because exercise releases a series of circulating factors (like proteins) into the bloodstream. Saul Villeda, the study’s senior author and an assistant professor of anatomy at The University of California San Francisco, said that one specific protein abundant in the liver appears to be especially important. It’s called Glpd and it sends a crucial message to the body.

I think it’s sort of signaling to your body: repair yourself or restore yourself,” Villeda explains.

The study builds upon the larger idea that aging in the brain isn’t inevitable, and that the basic lifestyle tools we have to stave it off can be further honed to keep brains sharp into old age. It’s possibly a step towards an exercise pill that’s intended to keep the brain swole, not the body — though Villeda cautions that this is far in the future.

Numerous studies have suggested that exercise can help slow cognitive decline. The mechanisms for that differ, but a working idea is that exercise triggers a series of changes in the body, including the release of certain blood factors that may confer benefits, the study notes. Villeda calls the blood a “conduit” for all the organs in the body to communicate with one another, which suggests that might help transfer exercise-related benefits from one creature to another. In the study, a group of aged mice (18 months old) was given access to a running wheel all the time. Another group of sedentary mice was provided with nesting materials (to promote more chilling and less running). Then, blood plasma (which is the white-ish part of blood that contains all the circulating cells and proteins) was taken from each group and injected into two additional groups over three weeks.

The mice with their fresh runner-blood injections then performed a water-based maze test — they had to find a platform to get to safety — and a fear conditioning test. These tests are designed to test spatial learning memory. If you’ve ever had a moment when you realize that you can’t find your car in the parking lot anymore, you’ve experienced a lapse in that type of memory, Villeda explains.

All of a sudden, you might see this older individual using their car alarm to try and find their car because they can’t quite remember where their car was,” he says. “Those are the types of impairments that already are occurring with just normal age before you get dementia or disease.

The mice who received blood plasma transfusions from the exercised mice were faster to learn the location of the dry platforms in the maze compared to those that got plasma from sedentary mice. In the fear-based test, the mice were quicker to freeze in response to a context clue – suggesting that they were faster to learn what might cause them harm. In mouse-years, you might think of these aged mice as 70-year-olds, Villeda says. The improvements seen in the mice who received plasma donation were the equivalent of turning back the clock decades, he explains:

We’re reversing it probably back to the late 30s, early 40s. But that’s a significant improvement for these animals.”

This study suggests that these transfusions may help to preserve memory functions that once existed in younger animals, Villeda says — his team found that they were able to reverse some of the animal’s cognitive impairments. What these transfusions can not do is boost memory — the goal is to prevent decline, not add benefits.

Source: https://science.sciencemag.org/
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https://www.inverse.com/

One Pill A Day Reduces Heart Attack Risk By One Third

A cheap, single pill taken once a day that combines four common drugs is safe and reduces the risk of events such as heart attacks, strokes and sudden death in people over the age of 50, research has found. The study, the first large-scale trial to date, looked at the effectiveness of a so-called polypill – a four-in-one therapy containing drugs to lower cholesterol and blood pressure that was first proposed more than 15 years ago. The researchers found those taking the polypill had a more than 30% lower risk of serious heart problems than those just offered advice.

While different formulations have been studied, previous trials have only been conducted in small groups of people and over short periods of time. These studies have primarily looked at the impacts of cholesterol on blood pressure, relying on models to predict the impact on cardiovascular events such as strokes – meaning the full potential of the polypill has remained unclear. The latest study tackled both of these problems.

There has been a lot of talk about using this simple, fixed-dose combination drug for prevention of cardiovascular disease and I think we have shown that as a strategy it can work,” said Prof Tom Marshall, a co-author of the study from the University of Birmingham, adding that the pills might cost as little as a few pence per day. The new study involved more than 6,800 participants aged 50-75 from rural Iran – an area where almost 34% of premature deaths are down to coronary heart disease, and 14% are caused by strokes.

Writing in the Lancet, researchers from the UK, US and Iran reported that 3,417 people were given only minimum care, such as help with controlling blood pressure or cholesterol if needed, as well as lifestyle advice on topics such as diet, exercise and smoking. A similar number of people were, in addition to this, also given the polypill. More than 90% of those involved in the study did not have cardiovascular disease at the outset. Participants were followed up for five years. Over that time, 202 people taking the polypill had a major cardiovascular event, such as heart attack, heart failure, or stroke, compared with 301 in the “advice” group.

The authors say that translated as a 34% lower risk of having such an event, compared with the “advice” group, once factors including age, sex, diabetes and high blood pressure were taken into account.

There were also signs that, at least early on, the polypill reduced some aspects of high blood pressure, while it also led to a small fall in “bad” cholesterol. Both groups showed similar low levels of problematic events including internal bleeding and peptic ulcers. Overall, the results suggested that two major cardiovascular events would be avoided for every 69 people taking the tablet for 5 years. The polypill includes aspirin, which the team acknowledge is controversial as it can increase the risk of bleeding: the latest trial did not include people who were at high risk of such problems.

Source: https://www.theguardian.com/